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Space probe
A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to lower cost and lower risk factors...
Timeline of Events
1962
1.26.1962
Ranger program: Ranger 3 is launched to study the moon. The space probe later misses the moon by 22,000 miles (35,400 km).
1965
3.21.1965
Ranger program: NASA launches Ranger 9 which is the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.
1966
3.1.1966
Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet's surface.
3.31.1966
The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
1967
6.12.1967
Venera program: Venera 4 is launched (it will become the first space probe to enter another planet's atmosphere and successfully return data).
1973
11.3.1973
Mariner program: NASA launches the ''Mariner 10'' toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.
2002
2.19.2002
NASA's Mars Odyssey space probe begins to map the surface of Mars using its thermal emission imaging system.