12
August
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August 12 in History
2007
The bulk carrier M/V ''New Flame'' collides with the oil tanker ''Torm Gertrud'' at the southernmost tip of Gibraltar, ending up partially submerged.
2005
Sri Lanka's foreign minister, Lakshman Kadirgamar, is fatally shot by an LTTE sniper at his home.
2004
New Jersey Governor James McGreevey comes out publicly as gay and would resign from office the following November.
2000
The Oscar class submarine K-141 ''Kursk'' of the Russian Navy explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise.
1994
Major League Baseball players go on strike. This will force the cancellation of the 1994 World Series.
1992
Canada, Mexico and the United States announce completion of negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1985
Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster.
1982
Mexico announces it is unable to pay its enormous external debt, marking the beginning of a debt crisis that spreads to all of Latin America and the Third World.
1981
The IBM Personal Computer is released.
1980
The Montevideo Treaty, establishing the Latin American Integration Association, is signed.
1978
The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People's Republic of China is signed.
1977
The Sri Lankan riots of 1977, targeting the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people, begin, less than a month after the United National Party came to power. Over 300 Tamils are killed.
The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise.
1976
Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War
1969
Violence erupts after the Apprentice Boys of Derry march in Derry, Northern Ireland, resulting in a three-day communal riot known as the Battle of the Bogside.
1964
Charlie Wilson, one of the Great Train Robbers, escapes from Winson Green Prison in Birmingham, England.
South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.
1960
''Echo 1A'', NASA's first successful communications satellite, is launched.
1953
The islands of Zakynthos and Kefalonia in Greece are severely damaged by an earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale.
Nuclear weapons testing: the Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of ''Joe 4'', the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon.
1952
The Night of the Murdered Poets: thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow.
1944
Waffen SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema.
Alençon is liberated by General Leclerc, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.
1943
Alleged date of the first Philadelphia Experiment test on United States Navy ship {{USS|Eldridge|DE-173|6}}.
1914
World War I: the United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.
1898
The Hawaiian flag is lowered from Iolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawai`i to the United States.
An Armistice ends the Spanish-American War.
1883
The last quagga dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam.
1877
Asaph Hall discovers the Mars moon Deimos.
1851
Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.
1833
Chicago is founded.
1829
Perth, Western Australia is founded.
1806
Santiago de Liniers re-takes the city of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion.
1793
The Rhône and Loire (Lêre) ''départments'' are created when the former ''département'' of Rhône-et-Loire is split into two.
1687
Battle of Mohács: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottomans.
1676
Praying Indian John Alderman shoots and kills Metacomet, the Wampanoag war chief, ending King Philip's War.
1499
First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets.
1480
Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam.
1332
Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Dupplin Moor
1323
Signature of the Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod (Russia), that regulates the border between the two countries for the first time.
1281
The Mongolian fleet of Kublai Khan is destroyed by a typhoon while approaching Japan.
1164
Battle of Harim: Nur ad-Din Zangi defeats the Crusader armies of the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch.
1121
Battle of Didgori: the Georgian army under King David the Builder wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi.
1099
First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon  Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade.