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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...
Timeline of Events
1853
10.4.1853
Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia.
1870
2.28.1870
The Bulgarian Exarchate is established by decree of Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz of the Ottoman Empire.
1873
2.18.1873
Bulgarian revolutionary leader Vasil Levski is executed by hanging in Sofia by the Ottoman authorities.
1875
6.19.1875
The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.
1877
4.24.1877
Russo-Turkish War: Russian Empire declares war on Ottoman Empire.
5.10.1877
Romania declares itself independent from the Ottoman Empire following the Senate adoption of Mihail Kogălniceanu's Declaration of Independence. This act is recognized on March 26, 1881 after the end of the Romanian War of Independence.
1878
3.3.1878
Bulgaria regains its independence from Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of San Stefano; shortly after Congress of Berlin stripped its status to an autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire.
6.4.1878
Cyprus Convention: The Ottoman Empire cedes Cyprus to the United Kingdom but retains nominal title.
7.13.1878
Treaty of Berlin: the European powers redraw the map of the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro and Romania become completely independent of the Ottoman empire.
1897
4.5.1897
The Greco-Turkish War, also called "Thirty Days' War", is declared between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.
1903
8.2.1903
Fall of the Ottoman Empire: an unsuccessful uprising led by the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization against Ottoman Turkey, also known as the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising, takes place.
1909
4.27.1909
Sultan of Ottoman Empire Abdul Hamid II is overthrown, and is succeeded by his brother, Mehmed V.
1911
9.29.1911
Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
11.5.1911
After declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on September 29, 1911, Italy annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica.
1912
10.17.1912
Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.
10.19.1912
Italy takes possession of Tripoli, Libya from the Ottoman Empire.
10.23.1912
First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo between the Serbian and Ottoman armies begins.
11.28.1912
Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1914
11.2.1914
Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1916
1.9.1916
World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli concludes with an Ottoman Empire victory when the last Allied forces are evacuated from the peninsula.
1.10.1916
Erzerum Offensive during World War I, Russian victory over Ottoman Empire
4.29.1916
World War I: The British 6th Indian Division surrenders to Ottoman Forces at the Siege of Kut in one of the largest surrenders of British forces up to that point.
1917
7.6.1917
World War I: Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") and Auda ibu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt.
11.7.1917
World War I: Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.
1918
10.13.1918
Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.
10.30.1918
The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East.
11.13.1918
Allied troops occupy Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire.
1920
8.10.1920
World War I: Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI's representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres that divides up the Ottoman Empire between the Allies.
1921
8.27.1921
The British install the son of Sharif Hussein bin Ali (leader of the Arab Revolt of 1916 against the Ottoman Empire) as King Faisal I of Iraq.
1922
11.1.1922
The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicates.
1923
10.29.1923
Turkey becomes a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.